## A Tale of 4+ Strings

Most programming languages need to deal with text in some way or another—and programming languages for writing interactive fiction need to deal a lot with text. The way modern languages do it is to have some sort of String type, which will generally support text encoded using some Unicode format.

But text is deceptively simple. Even if we don’t get into all of the complexities of Unicode and internationalisation (“I just want to count the characters in this text, how hard could that be?”), requirements on how you store and operate on this text can vary wildly depending on the operations and limitations that you have. For example, a contiguously-stored binary is good for displaying text, but terrible for editing it, if you have a text editor. A rope storage is the complete opposite of that. Storing Unicode in UTF-16 is great for implementing operations on a JavaScript string, but it wastes too much memory on small devices like mobile phones.

Because of this, even though we generally talk about “String” as a single type, modern languages will tend to have several of these that embody different trade-offs. This may be exposed to the user (Haskell has at least 5 in the standard library, and you’re supposed to pick the tradeoff that fits your use-case), but it may also just be a runtime detail (JavaScript implementations have one “String” type, but multiple representations covering interning, ropes, slices, and ASCII-only special cases for saving memory).

Crochet has many types of strings as well, and it forces you to pick one of them. The difference here is that Crochet’s types are not about storage, they’re about security.

So, why would you want to differentiate strings for security, even if ultimately they have the exact same storage representation?

## What is text used for in programs, really?

Text is used for several different things in real programs, and not all of them have the same semantics. For example, consider the following JSON blob, which represents the state of a character in a game:

{
"x": 10,
"y": 20,
"direction": "north"
}


Here, "north" is definitely a piece of text in JSON, however we don’t necessarily think about it as arbitrary text. Indeed, the common case is that direction will contain one of many pre-defined values, and the use of text here just makes it easier to communicate which one of the pre-defined values we’re talking about for other humans. The computer honestly doesn’t care.

Likely, the code that processes and produces this blob will have a definition such as:

enum direction = north, east, south, west;

type player( x is integer
, y is integer
, direction is direction
);


So each of these directions is known in advance and could’ve just as easily been represented in the JSON blob as a single number. Some programming languages, indeed, go the additional mile and define a specific “textual” type for it: a “symbol” or an “atom”, as generally called. We’ll call it a “symbol” here.

A “symbol” has very different semantics—that is, we think about it in a very different way, and give it very different affordances—when compared to arbitrary text such as the following:

let Title = "A Tale of 4+ Strings";


For our symbols, we can forbid concatenation, we can restrict the grammar to prevent the use of spaces, ensure that characters are always in the ASCII-range, avoid having to deal with the unicode normalisation nightmare that makes comparisons like "café" === "café" fail—even though they’re rendered exactly the same way on the screen. We can even build helpful IDEs that suggest symbols and automatically corrects them—or converts from different spellings. And we can do all of this because we know there are only a handful of valid values for symbols.

None of these things are possible for the Title example text because that’s an arbitrary piece of text. We don’t know what language it’s using— or if it’s even a known, existing natural language; it could just as well be an arbitrary sequence of letters in some alphabet, or a piece of text in a new constructed language. Or, indeed, a piece of text in a new programming language. There’s no real intrinsic semantics attached to this piece of text.

Sure, we could always force people to tag their pieces of text with something that tells us what semantics to consider. In this case:

let Title = english "A Tale of 4+ Strings";


Would tell us that this is a piece of English text, and that we can use that information when comparing it to a different piece of text: for example, we could avoid case sensitivity.

Still, even if we know something is written in English, that doesn’t mean it has to follow the standard English grammar—or that it’ll only use words that are known, or even words in the meanings that are known and common. While we could approximate several semantics based on more annotations, things get quite ugly quite quickly, and we’re forced to reckon the arbitrary nature of text.

So that leaves us with at least two types of text so far: symbols, and arbitrary text.

## Context and composition of text pieces

We’ve briefly touched on concatenation and semantics before, but it’s time to dive a bit deeper on that; this will be important when we discuss the implications for security.

Text may be introduced in a program as some arbitrary collection of bytes or characters. But the people who’re putting it in the program generally have some semantics for that piece of text; these semantics are just not conveyed to the program—not right away, and sometimes never after that either.

For example, consider the following:

let File = "paper.txt";


As far as the programming language knows, this is just as arbitrary of a piece of text as the Title example we’ve seen before. However, to the programmer, this likely has much better defined semantics. Indeed, they’ll often follow this line with something like:

let Contents = file-system read-as-text: File;


Here, the arbitrary piece of text we had is forced to be treated a relative path to some file in a file system. As written, we can generally reason about it somewhat: “It’ll read a file called paper.txt in the current directory!”. But only somewhat, because there are additional things to consider here. For example: “What is the ‘current directory’?” or “What will happen if there exists a file called ‘paper.txt’ and a file called ‘Paper.txt’?”

But things get worse—they always do. Consider the following:

let Full-path = Directory ++ File;
let Contents = file-system read-as-text: Full-path;


Here we’re trying to treat Full-path as some path to a file in the file system and read it as a piece of text. Nothing here is really different from before, except that Full-path is now the combination of Directory and File. But what does it mean to combine Directory and File?

Well, as the _ ++ _ function is the textual concatenation function in this case, the pieces of text are simply mashed up together. For example, if we have "/Users/q/" ++ "paper.txt", then its combination would be "/Users/q/paper.txt". We could likewise have "/Users/q" ++ "\u0301", resulting in "/Users/q́". Both of them are valid paths in a Linux machine, but it’s very unlikely that the second result was expected.

The problem here is that a file system path has very specific rules and semantics, and we can’t just mash things together and hope they’ll still work. Allowing string concatenation essentially breaks composition, if you’re going to represent things as strings—and people will do that, because it’s convenient (and somewhat universal).

## And then, injections

So combining strings sometimes is subject to more restricted contextual rules, and when these rules are broken (and there’s nothing there in most languages to ensure that they won’t be broken), programs do confusing things.

However, programs only do confusing things when we’re combining values that we control. Values that were either statically defined in the program, or produced by the program using values we likewise control.

Attackers will generally not want things to behave confusingly, if they can avoid it.

So as soon as we allow strings to come from sources that we don’t have full control over, all bets on what the semantics of these combinations should be are off. Just like missing a semicolon on line 39 of a 9467 lines JavaScript file and having the parser go wild—except that at some point between line 39 and 9467 some of the contents may have been put there by an attacker.

For example, consider the following:

let Output = command-line arguments option: "--output";
let Program = command-line arguments option: "--program";

let File = compile: (file-system read-as-text: Program);
file-system at: ("_build/" ++ Output)
write-text: File;


This example is a bit more contrived. When you invoke this program in the command line, let’s say with: run --program file.in --output file.out, this program will read text from the path provided in the --program option, then do some kind of compilation, and output the result in _build/<output>, where <output> is whatever was provided for the --output option.

Both --program and --output, as well as the file we read, are outside of our control. Now, our little program tries to be nice and output whatever it compiles to a _build folder that’s under its control.

What happens, however, when someone runs the program with?

run --program malicious.in
--output ../../../usr/local/bin/python


If this program creates an executable, and it has write permission to that folder—it generally does because desktop OSs don’t use capabilities—, then we’ve essentially allowed an attacker to replace the default installation of Python in this user’s machine, with one that’s attacker-controlled. Even though we’ve tried to sandbox the output inside of the little _build folder, combining that with arbitrary text without caring about the semantics of file system paths resulted in a vulnerability.

Of course, all injection attacks steem from this. And it’s such a common occurrence that any secure-inclined language has to deal with this; leaving it for users to worry about is just setting them up for failure, because it’s not reasonable to keep track of the flow of these values as programs grow bigger.

## Labelling values

Injection attacks require us to keep track of, at the very least, which values are “trusted” (we have fully control and knowledge of them), and which values are “untrusted” (they come from malicious actors). Because we can’t really verify the intent of a piece of data in a computer, we over-approximate the “untrusted” category to mean “all values that come from outside of the program, even if it’s this little configuration file we have manually written 2 minutes ago”.

One way of doing this is through labelling values. Some languages, like Perl, do this through their Taint checking mechanism, and it’s usually going to be limited to strings. Other languages, like Jeeves, have a richer idea of labelling and allow labels to be attached to any value.

In Crochet, a label is really just a distinct type. So strings (which Crochet actually calls “text”) will have the following hierarchy:

unsafe-arbitrary-text     -- any piece of text
|
|--> text               -- any trusted piece of text
| |--> static-text      -- literal text values in a program
| --> dynamic-text     -- produced by running the program on text
|
--> untrusted-text     -- untrusted textual values, anything from outside


A function that accepts text accepts any trusted piece of text. A function that accepts unsafe-arbitrary-text accepts any piece of text, even those coming from untrusted sources. Most functions operate on text, and Crochet tries to make operating on untrusted text as costly as possible.

Any operation that involves untrusted-text will yield another untrusted-text. That means that, if you have an untrusted piece of text "hello", and you take the first 4 letters of this piece of text, you’re going to get back an untrusted "hell".

Untrusted pieces of text can be promoted to trusted pieces of text by parsing—not validation. A parser is something that analyses the contents of the piece of text, and then decides how to interpret it. For example, a file system API may provide the following function:

command #path parse-segment: (Text is unsafe-arbitrary-text)
-> result<segment>;


It will take an arbitrary (possibly unsafe) piece of text, and try to interpret it as a path segment (i.e.: anything that does not contain a path separator or a relative path indicator such as ..). If it succeeds—the input was a valid segment—then it returns a proper trusted segment value. Otherwise it will return a failure.

With this function, we can rewrite our previous example to:

let Program = command-line arguments option: "--program";
let Program-segment = #path parse-segment: Program
| value-or-panic: "Expected a segment";
let Program-path = #path current / Program-segment;

let Output = command-line arguments option: "--output";
let Output-segment = #path parse-segment: Output
| value-or-panic: "Expected a segment";
let Output-path = #path current / "_build" / Output-segment;

let File = compile: (file-system read-as-text: Program-path);
file-system at: Output-path
write-text: File;


When our attacker tries their exploit for this new version of the program, we’ll just crash and burn instead of heeding its evil machinations:

\$ run --program malicious.in
--output ../../../usr/local/bin/python

*** panic: Expected a segment


So now our program is safe. But it’s not secure.

And it isn’t the lack of security concepts that is making it insecure. Rather, there’s too much of it. So much that, realistically, nobody would write this program in the first place. If a simple program requires as much boiler-plate in order to get anything done, people would simple choose a different tool—especially if they’re not professional programmers to begin with.

So we need to step up our game and make the language actually usable, which is a requirement for it to be secure. We have to make writing secure programs not only possible and the default, but also effortless.

Or, well, we can’t make anything really “effortless”. But we can try to reduce the friction of writing secure programs as much as possible.

The way Crochet deals with this is a bit complicated, because it also needs to take into account Capabilities, so we’ll limit ourselves here only to strings.

So a better API may be:

let Program = command-line arguments option: "--program";
let Program-path = #path current / Program;

let Output = command-line arguments option: "--output";
let Output-path = #path current / "_build" / Output-segment;

let File = compile: (file-system read-as-text: Program-path);
file-system at: Output-path
write-text: File;


By folding parsing in the _ / _ function for paths we’re able to avoid requiring users to think about it. The only thing that really makes sense on each side of a / is either a fully-fledged path, or a segment, so if we get a piece of text there, parsing it as a segment is the only reasonable course of action. Type inference and IDEs can, then, explain that decision to users.

## Combining pieces of text. Again.

There’s one piece missing, however. We’ve discussed that combining pieces of text is a contextual operation, and that we often have many different languages with more restricted semantics.

We’ve also looked at how, if you’re willing to pay the price of parsing, we can both ensure that these combined pieces of “text” (usually not text anymore at that point) will be correct by construction, and they’ll also be resistant to injection attacks, which rely on rule violations in the composition of strings.

But—and this is a big but—this is only the case if we both know what the context of the composition will be before-hand, and we have parsers available for the format, and we’re willing to pay that price. Particularly if what we write in the program is going to be a far cry from how we’d generally express the same semantics everywhere else.

In the previous example, we were forced to rethink the way we express file system paths in terms of this #path object and this _ / _ function. What does that mean if we want to combine XML? The result is often attainable, but dreadful, confusing, and certainly not friendly until you invest too much time and energy in a new esoteric language.

E had this idea of quasi-literals, which were eventually turned into JavaScript’s template strings. Here, if you know the context before-hand, you can get all of the benefits of required parsing to promote untrusted strings without giving up on the familiar (and often more usable) syntax. With the idea of quasi-literals, the program above could have been further refined to:

let Program = #path[command-line arguments option: "--program"];
let Output = #path_build/[command-line arguments option: "--output"];

let File = compile: (file-system read-as-text: Program);
file-system at: Output
write-text: File;


Which is much closer to what we started with, but without any of the security problems. Indeed, this new form even provides more opportunity for better contextual parsing than before.

Now, we don’t always have the appropriate context. And not everything will have a pre-built parser we can use. And, as a programming language for interactive fiction, most text in Crochet will actually have formatting nodes inside, such as: "A [strong: "key"]?". Here we really don’t want to have to interpret strong ahead of time because what it’ll ultimately mean depends on what rendering format the program is using—an HTML renderer does not do the same thing as a Terminal or Canvas renderer.

So, instead, Crochet takes a page out of Free monads and defines a first-class interpolation type. With this we have:

let Program = command-line arguments option: "--program";
let Output = command-line arguments option: "--output";

let File = compile: (file-system read-as-text: (Program as segment));
file-system at: ("_build/[Output]" as path)
write-text: File;


Now we have this X as Y syntax, which means “coerce X into Y somehow”. _ as _ is just a regular multi-method, so the “somehow” is still defined by invoking a function. What this does is straightforward for Program as segment—it means the same as #path parse-segment: Program, but "_build/[Output]" as path requires a bit more of attention.

If you have familiarity with a programming language that does string interpolation, you’ll likely see this as the equivalent of ("_build/" ++ Output) as path. Which is absolutely correct in Crochet—they both do the same thing here. But this does not result in any of the string types we’ve seen so far. Instead, it yields an “Interpolation” type. And an interpolation is essentially a tree of components, some of which may be pieces of text, and some of which may be arbitrary values.

In this case we have:

Interpolation:
"_build/"    Output
^^^^^^^^^    ^^^^^^
|             --- value of type untrusted-text
--- static component


So when this is passed to the path parser, it knows exactly which portions of the program were literals in the interpolation, and which parts were concatenated there. It can use that information to do the same contextual parsing as before, so we may enjoy the same guarantees about correct composition that we need for security.

First-class interpolations do come at a runtime cost, as does labelling. Particularly for applications that might do a lot of text scanning and parsing. But the trade-offs are completely worth it for Crochet’s domain and target audience.